Thursday, 15 March 2018

Darynda Jones

Darynda Jones

Recently I’ve been listing to Darynda Jones, specifically her 12-book series about a woman who was born with the ability to see and talk to dead people (I don’t know if she’s done any other series).
I have listed to almost all of the twelve books, except for 2,11,12 and I’m listing to the 8th (look, I’m a weird person). So in this blog I’m going to tell you the rough idea of the plot, and my opinion of the series so far.
First thing when listing to an audiobook is if the reader is good, because if the reader is bad it can completely ruin the best of books, and the reader in this series is very good, with both female and male voices. For voices I haven’t had a moment of “wait who was that” and all the voices are very distinct and pleasing to listen to.

Now onto the actual bookie stuff. One of the first things you might be thinking about is if all of her books are good, I mean doing a series on the same subject for twelve straight books and keep readers interested seems like quite a hard feat. But Jones does it very well, and one of the ways she does it, is that the main character is also a detective of sorts. This book is also written with many small but funny jokes, like at the beginning of each chapter there’s a funny quote like “If one door closes and anther one opens you house is probably haunted”, and then puts at the end where its quoted from (meme, bumper sticker, T-shirt, and once in a while a person). Quotes aren’t the only funny thing in this book though. The main character always has something funny to say even in the direst of situations. The plot is also very strong although I’ve had a couple of moments thinking that what just happened was a little confusing. But considering it’s a series of twelve books, it’s very well done.

We’ll come back to the plot later but first I want to tell you about the main character and some others, then some things in the plot will make more sense.

Charlie Davidson
The main character, known as Charlotte Davidson (she doesn’t like the name Charlotte though), Charlie Davidson (most of her friends call her Charlie), and Dutch (only Reus, her boyfriend/husband calls her that). As you may have noticed she goes by a lot of names, for our purpose we’ll call her Charlie.
The entire plot is effectively based on her and her powers. She starts off in the series with nothing horribly special, but she starts to grow into her powers as the series goes on.
Her basic powers slash the reason she’s on earth, is that she’s the Grim Reaper, but not in that way you’re thinking right now. You’re imagining a scary spooky skeleton with a hood and a scythe, well forget it (side note, most reapers in this world don’t live past the age of five and she is 25ish, reapers do their job after they’re dead, the reason she’s lived this long is because of another character that we’ll learn about). Her job is to help souls pass, but not all of them, most pass immediately after they die, but some that are murdered stay because they want their murder solved, and this is how Darynda keeps the books fresh. Or somebody will come to her private investigator business and ask her to solve a murder or disappearance. I’m describing it quite badly, but oh well. The way dead people find her is because to them she is really bright.

Reus Pharaoh
Now the way Charlie has survived for so long (compared to other reapers), is Reus, the son of Satan/Lucifer. Now its not as bad as you think. Luckily for the main character Reus fell in love with her. And he was born on earth so he could protect her. Because he saw her before she was even born he arrived on earth three years before. Because of this he was old enough to protect her. All did not go well for our little Reus though, when he was deciding a couple for him to be brought up by, he chose a nice couple but then life through two curve balls at him. First, he was abducted by a lady because she thought the mother was undeserving. Then because the cops were getting onto her she sold him to a very horrible person. Let’s just say that man liked boys more than women. When Reus is twenty he is thrown into jail for murdering that man (he didn’t do it), and after 10 years in jail he breaks out to prove his innocence. After that he moves in beside Charlie and then buys her dads bar and later in the series they marry.

Cookie Kowalski                                                                                             
Cookie… yep that actually somebody’s name in this series, she is a single mother, assistant of Charlie, and also Charlie’s best friend, also the comic relief of this book. She is slightly overweight and is clumsy and just all around good person. She and Charlie are constantly having funny discussions and getting themselves into trouble. Charlie and Cookie (also called Cook sometimes) bonded over many things, one being their absolute love of coffee. They drink wherever and whenever they want no matter what.
 I can’t really explain her true personality, it just has a je ne sais quoi. Without Cookie this series would definitely be half baked.

Auch/the Dealer
Auch, a deva (slave demon) that fought like a gladiator for the amusement for the Hell hierarchy. He was the best of the best, so good in fact that in a hand to hand fight with pure skill he would be able to best Satan himself. He was allowed luxuries that other deva didn’t have. Eventually he escaped Hell to live on earth as a card dealer/player. Only his currency was whatever deal humans wanted for their souls (menacing isn’t it). Although he didn’t do just for a pass time, without souls to feed on his human form would die and he would be sent back to Hell. After Charlie met him, after some “persuasion” she convinced him to only feed on bad people, like murderer, rapists, and people who skip the line at movie theaters (ok, not people who skip lines). After some stuff happening he joins forces with Charlie.

Charlies family
Her father, an ex police detective whose career got greatly enhanced by the help of Charlie’s ability to see dead people (it helps when you can just ask the dead person who did it).
Her uncle, much like Charlie’s father her uncle is also a police detective and helps Charlie out with info that the police sources have. In turn Charlie solves mysteries for her uncle. Also, he is in love with Cookie and they eventually marry.  
Her Sister, a psychiatrist and the “good sister”, also she was the pet of the stepmother.
Her stepmother, she doesn’t really appear to much in this series, but her actions affected the books a lot. She treated Charlie very horribly as a child while treating her sister like gold.
So that’s about it for the super main characters, there are lots of other character that mean a lot to this series, but I thought these where the ones that affect the book the most. I also admitted some characters as to not spoil all of the story.

The main plot starts off with Charlie meeting Cookie and the solve a murder of three lawyers. All through her childhood Reus took a for of a billowing smoky cloud (kind of like a classic grim reaper), she doesn’t know he is Reus, and as a child he is one of the only things she’s scared of, she called him the “Big Bad” (constantly having dead people talk to you probably creates a hard shell against scary stuff). She learns later who the “Big Bad” is, after finding out who Reus is they quickly fall in love.
The first big thing in the plot is Charlie and Reus proving that Reus is in fact not guilty of murder.
Then a friend of Charlie finds some prophecies (what would a fantasy book be without prophecies) about Charlie killing Satan, as you can imagine this is pretty flooring for Charlie, although the prophecies turn out to be slightly wrong later.

Now I know this doesn’t seem very exiting but for one I didn’t want to spoil the story for you, also the way the plot works in each book is that Charlie trying to solve one or two mysteries (she often does multiple in one book), and then the last hour or two (each book last 8 to 10 hours) is devoted to the “Big” plot (the one that lasts through all the twelve books).

I hope this convinced you to listen to the series, but I don’t know if I can really describe the genius of this series.

Tuesday, 27 February 2018

Siege Of Leningrad

            Just so you know all this information comes from a talk of UTL on Belle Île I went to yesterday.

Siege of Leningrad
It lasted 872 days and didn’t end till the end of the war. Years 1941-1944

Germany had at its height of power 12 countries in its rule, in a month they took over a space 2 times the size of France. 

1941 Germany decided to attack Leningrad, for resources and the potential to access the northern countries, if Germany took Leningrad they would've been able to completely restock their resources and possibly even win the war.

Before Germany attacked, Leningrad had population of 4 million people in 1940 and was the strongest cite in the Europe or any where else, it was the powerhouse at the time leading the world in economics and industry. In fact the only reason Leningrad stopped Germany was because Leningrad was one of the biggest producers of firearms and other weapons. Because of this the soldiers were some of the best armed in the war.

They tried to evacuate the population before the sacking but they didn't have enough time to do it, if they did Germany would've been able to intercept the population and kill or enslave them, so instead they fortified Leningrad with barricades, trenches, and mines.

But from there on it was downhill for Leningrad even though they stopped Germany, they had some of the highest death rates and the population went down by more than half. They lost 700,000 to 1,500,000 civilians and that doesn't include the 1,000,000 soldiers who died. It got so bad that in the end the woman and children would make up the line against the Germans.

Most of those civilian deaths were from starvation and the rest died from the 100,000 bombs that were dropped on the city. The rationing got so bad that is you put your hands together, each civilian would receive a piece of bread the size of that for the entire day. Sometimes there would be days before people would even get that. It got so bad that people would eat bodies that would die from freezing in the street.
This is the same person before and after the war.

Suffice to say all the animals were killed, including the dogs and cats. Because all the cats were gone the rats came, but not alone, they came with diseases of all kinds, and it spread quickly for multiple reasons. 

With people eating them for the little food it would give them, the diseases would enter them internally, but also the people were already weak so the diseases would be able to infect them easier. 
But because Leningrad is at the same altitude of Alaska, the pipes froze leaving people to take dirty water from the street. 
People taking water out of trenches in the street.

Frozen pipes wasn't the only thing the cold affected, electricity would be turned off at 4pm and oil was heavily rationed, leaving households in extreme cold with the winter averaging minus 18 Celsius and the coldest being minus 36 and a high of 1. Winters would generally average 6 months. In these winters most public transport would be completely stopped. At this time people would often drag boards behind them, this would help carry produce and bags. 

The after damages was massive, 82% of schools where destroyed, but most of the monuments where saved by the city where they were hidden for safe keeping, now they're dotted around the city in pristine condition. The city is now back to its population it had before the war, But they still remember it vividly, they've banned words like "famine" and others.

In the end a great city of 4 million went down to 800,000 soldiers and civilians. The city is now only at 5 million.
At the end of the war they brought in 1 to 5 million cats to get rid of the rats and disease.

Cool note, Leningrad is the home of Google.

Friday, 19 January 2018

Roman occupation in Germany

The start of the Roman occupation of Germany started in 15 BC.
A gigantic flank attack was planned in which the original plans of Caesar Augustus intended bringing the land as far as north as the Elbe river under Roman rule.
In AD 9, a germanic tribe attacked the Roman army. In the Battle of the Teutoburger Forest the large Roman army suffered a devastating defeat.
After wards several emperors went through trying to push up but never really made a great deal of difference.
They then made a wall that is the largest man made structure after the wall of China.
Even though they were able to make some progress into Germany they never really conquered them.

The short answer is that it wasn't worth it. People make a lot out of their defeat at the hands of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoberg Forest, but the effect is exaggerated.

 Yes, it was a spectacular defeat which stunned their ego. 
But the Romans throughout their history demonstrated showed that they would keep on fighting even after major losses.

Germany simply wasn't worth the effort. The Germanic tribes were even less developed than the Celtic tribes. Even the Celts had large, organized tribes with kings who often minted coinage, and urban centers, especially in Gaul. 
Germany had none of these. It was largely forest all, meaning there wasn't much agriculture. There was nothing even resembling towns and cities. Same with roads. And the tribal structures were much more primitive. Whereas Celtic tribes had organized into kingdoms, German tribes were still more like clans. 
So when one general messed up and got a legion killed, Rome sent more soldiers just to make them selves look good again. Then left the Germain alone.

Roman's point of view on Roman occupation of Germany

These are not point of view but from a general who lived almost 1 000 years ago.

They looked so white and they were so similar he believed that they were all from the same origin.

"The Germans, I am apt to believe, derive their original from no other people; and are nowise mixed with different nations arriving amongst them:"

They came from the calm ocean and then suddenly were introduced to a ocean that they were extremely scared of it.

"and into that mighty ocean so boundless, and, as I may call it, so repugnant and forbidding, ships from our world rarely enter. Moreover, besides the dangers from a sea tempestuous, horrid and unknown,"

He noticed how similar there songs and heroes were to the greek mythology.

"In their old ballads (which amongst them are the only sort of registers and history) they celebrate Tuisto, a God sprung from the earth, and Mannus his son, as the fathers and founders of the nation. To Mannus they assign three sons, after whose names so many people are called; the Ingaevones, dwelling next the ocean; the Herminones, in the middle country; and all the rest, Instaevones. Some, borrowing a warrant from the darkness of antiquity, maintain that the God had more sons, that thence came more denominations of people, the Marsians, Gambrians, Suevians, and Vandalians, and that these are the names truly genuine and original. For the rest, they affirm Germany to be a recent word, lately bestowed: for that those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, and are now named Tungrians, were then called Germans: and thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation; so that by an appellation at first occasioned by terror and conquest, they afterwards chose to be distinguished, and assuming a name lately invented were universally called Germans."

"I concur in opinion with such as suppose the people of Germany never to have mingled by inter-marriages with other nations, but to have remained a people pure, and independent, and resembling none but themselves. Hence amongst such a mighty multitude of men, the same make and form is found in all, eyes stern and blue, yellow hair, huge bodies, but vigorous only in the first onset. Of pains and labour they are not equally patient, nor can they at all endure thrift and heat. To bear hunger and cold they are hardened by their climate and soil."

He looks at how the different land grew from compared to Rome.

"lower and moister towards Noricum and Pannonia; very apt to bear grain, but altogether unkindly to fruit trees; abounding in flocks and herds, but generally small of growth. Nor even in their oxen is found the usual stateliness, no more than the natural ornaments and grandeur of head. In the number of their herds they rejoice; and these are their only, these their most desirable riches."

He didn't understand why they didn't love gold like the romans.

"Silver and gold the Gods have denied them, whether in mercy or in wrath,"

In fact they perfered silver coins, because the gold ones were too much of a hassle to buy stuff with (like walking into the dollar store with a $100 bill. To hard to get the change of your reamaning money).

"Silver too is what they seek more than gold, from no fondness or preference, but because small pieces are more ready in purchasing things cheap and common"

They would mainly fight with a short spear that was good for everything: throwing, close up, and on horse back. They would also have a shield.

"They carry javelins or, in their own language, framms, pointed with a piece of iron short and narrow, but so sharp and manageable, that with the same weapon they can fight at a distance or hand to hand, just as need requires."

They could also apparently throw them with there feet. I don't know how they could do it but apparently they did.

"the horsemen also are content with a shield and a javelin. The foot throw likewise weapons missive, each particular is armed with many, and hurls them a mighty space,"

He was a little confused how no man seemed to bow down to the other.

"Neither is the power of their kings unbounded or arbitrary: and their generals procure obedience not so much by the force of their authority as by that of their example, when they appear enterprising and brave, when they signalise themselves by courage and prowess; and if they surpass all in admiration and pre-eminence, if they surpass all at the head of an army. But to none else but the Priests is it allowed to exercise correction, or to inflict bonds or stripes. "

They had a very brutal but strict rules and penalties.

"the assembly it is allowed to present accusations, and to prosecute capital offences. Punishments vary according to the quality of the crime. Traitors and deserters they hang upon trees. Cowards, and sluggards, and unnatural prostitutes they smother in mud and bogs under an heap of hurdles. Such diversity in their executions has this view, that in punishing of glaring iniquities, it behooves likewise to display them to sight; but effeminacy and pollution must be buried and concealed. In lighter transgressions too the penalty is measured by the fault, and the delinquents upon conviction are condemned to pay a certain number of horses or cattle. Part of this mulct accrues to the King or to the community, part to him whose wrongs are vindicated, or to his next kindred. In the same assemblies are also chosen their chiefs or rulers, such as administer justice in their villages and boroughs. To each of these are assigned an hundred persons chosen from amongst the populace, to accompany and assist him, men who help him at once with their authority and their counsel."

He was horrified by the buildings they lived in and how they didn't have any style.

"With them in truth, is unknown even the use of mortar and of tiles. In all their structures they employ materials quite gross and unhewn, void of fashion and comeliness. Some parts they besmear with an earth so pure and resplendent, that it resembles painting and colours. They are likewise wont to scoop caves deep in the ground, and over them to lay great heaps of dung. Thither they retire for shelter in the winter, and thither convey their grain: for by such close places they mollify the rigorous and excessive cold. Besides when at any time their enemy invades them, he can only ravage the open country, but either knows not such recesses as are invisible and subterraneous; or must suffer them to escape him, on this very account that he is uncertain where to find them."

He also didn't understand there lack of fashion in cloths. 

"They likewise wear the skins of savage beasts, a dress which those bordering upon the Rhine use without any fondness or delicacy, but about which such who live further in the country are more curious, as void of all apparel introduced by commerce. They choose certain wild beasts, and, having flayed them, diversify their hides with many spots, as also with the skins of monsters from the deep, such as are engendered in the distant ocean and in seas unknown. Neither does the dress of the women differ from that of the men, save that the women are orderly attired in linen embroidered with purple, and use no sleeves, so that all their arms are bare."

They did the opposite of what the romans did with the dowery. I think its better to do what the Germans did than the romans.

"To the husband, the wife tenders no dowry; but the husband, to the wife."


Thursday, 11 January 2018

My experience with laughing gas

I recently had a minor toe surgery because I had an ingrown toenail, and for most people who haven't gotten this, its when you cut your toe nail incorrectly and it grows back wrong ad digs into your skin, making your toes very sensitive and painful (if you touch it it hurts). So after trying antibiotics and other things the doctor got me to go down into a room that was a proper surgery room, and they gave me what they call "hilarant", that translates to "hilarious", it was given with one of those masks you always see in movies. This was not meant to nock me out, only to calm me and make me feel less pain.

How it really went was that I would go in and out of consciousness, and I felt the pain just as much, but I was not really able to move my body to react to it. All I could think was.
"Ow, this hurts, this still hurts, will it stop... ow it still hurts, oh hey I can open my eyes, ow. "
The only time I laughed was about 5 mins into the surgery and the doctor told my mom to distract me and she started telling me time tables. Which are not normally funny but the idea that she used multiplication to distract me made me laugh.

I also now have an extremely runny nose for the last several days, but I had a cold before that so it might be the cold, or it might be the combo of both. Its definitely worth it though, now that my toes don't hurt.

So that is my experience with the laughing gas.

Thursday, 21 December 2017

The Ionia Sanction By Gary Corby

This is a detective murder mystery writer in Ancient Greek times.

This is the second one in the series of three (they don't have the first one available as an Ebook in my library, and since I'm traveling I can't get the real one), from this book I gather it just introduces the main characters and tells you there back story. The second on can be a standalone book though in my opinion and there is no need to read the first one (but I'm sure it is just as great as this one).

The author is a semi accurate author as I would put it, the names are proper greek names but pronounced as a person who speaks English would. Every thing is historically accurate except the plot. Effectively he takes the Ancient Greek world and adds in his characters.

 It starts off with the main character ((Nicolaos) who has recently just become the first professional detective ever) investigating a murder of a man (the man was the ambassador for another city), he had recently received a letter and it was missing. So Nicolaos is sent after it, after his suspect escapes he discovers a girl that had been with the suspect, it turns out the girls is an abducted daughter of a very powerful man, he must go to the city the ambassador was from, and return the girl to her father.

It turns out the father is making a battle plan to attack Athenes (the city the main character is from), so Nicolaos must stop him, the only way being to kill him. After staying in the palace for months he decides to take his move and poison him.

That is a short way of telling the plot (the audiobook is 12 hours long, but you will not find yourself getting bored of it, the reader is very good (still below Michael Prichard, who reads the Nero Wolfe books, but the reader is better than most), and the story is like an exciting history book, dropping facts of Ancient Greek life here and there.

I highly suggest getting the audiobook, it is a great read.

Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Eiffel Tower's History

The Eiffel Tower

We all know the Eiffel tower, but do we know its history? Read here and find some things you don’t know.

It was built for the 100-year celebration of the French Revolution, it was only one of the few things happening at the time. The French were having a massive festival in Paris, and the Eiffel tower would have been one of many attractions.  In fact it was supposed to be destroyed after 20 years (Eiffel had that time so he could make his money back since he funded 80% of the Eiffel tower), but he was able to point out its usefulness as a radio tower.

It was once used as a billboard and it was the largest billboard in the world, yep that’s right. It would light up Paris with thousands of light bulbs spelling the name of the product.

The Eiffel tower was designed by Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel. Keochlin made a sketch of it and said it would look like a giant pylon with four legs.

Eiffel originally didn’t like the idea and it wasn’t until Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier consulted Stephen Sauvestre (the head of the engineering section of the company), and that Stephen made some improvements, that Eiffel liked the idea. Improvements mainly consisted of arches to make it look more artistic (and structurally stronger).


Ground Floor to First Floor
Constructing lifts to reach the first level was relatively easy, the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nearly straight that they could make a straight up and down lift. The contract was given to the French company Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for two lifts to be put in the east and west legs.

First level to second level
It wasn’t until the second floor that they hit problems, because there was no way for them to get a straight up and down elevator, in fact no French company wanted the job.  Except for the European branch of Otis nobody else put in a proposal, they had been turned down the first time, but they got accepted when nobody else showed up. Otis was so confident they would get the job that they had already started making plans for the design.

Second level to third level

The original lifts for the journey between the second and third levels were supplied by Léon Edoux.  Each car only travelled half the distance between the second and third levels and people would have to use a short gangway to change lifts. The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers.


The main structure was completed at the end of March 1889 and, on the 31st  of March, Eiffel celebrated by leading a group of government members, accompanied by the press, to the top of the tower.
Because the lifts were not yet working, they had to walk up by foot, and took over an hour, with Eiffel stopping frequently to explain various features.
Most of the party chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, including the engineer, Émile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro and Le Monde Illustré, completed the ascent. 

There was still work to be done (mainly work on the lifts), and the tower was not open until nine days after the opening of the fair, and even when it did open the lifts had not been done. People instantly liked the tour with nearly 30,000 visitors making it to the top before the lifts were finished on 26th of May.

Tickets would cost you 2 francs for the first level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the top, with half-price admission on Sundays, and by the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors.

 There are about 6.5 francs to a euro and 5 to a Canadian dollar.

After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon made three beams: red, white and blue light, to make the French flag.

At the top there was post office where you could send off a post card as a memento, and pieces of paper you could draw on.

Some quite famous people came to the Eiffel tower and got to join Eiffel in his personal rooms, including the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, Buffalo Bill Cody, and Thomas Jefferson.

For the 1900 Exposition Universelle, the lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the second level constructed by the French firm Fives-Lille. These had a compensating mechanism to keep the floor level as the angle of ascent changed at the first level, and were driven by a similar hydraulic mechanism to the Otis lifts, although this was situated at the base of the tower.  At the same time the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the first level. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level.
The original lift in the south pillar was removed 13 years later.

Activities at the Tower

On the 19th of October 1901, Albert Santos Dumont won a prize for 100,000 francs by flying from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower in less than a half hour. The prize was offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe.

Many inventions took play at the Eiffel tower in the early 20th century.

In 1910 Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. He found more at the top than expected, accidentally discovering what we known as cosmic rays.

Two years later Franz Reichelt (an Austrian tailor) died when he tried to demonstrate his design for a parachute from the first floor of the Eiffel tower (I assume it didn’t work).

In 1914 a radio transmitter was put on the top and it helped slow down the Germans when they were attacking , and help an allied victory at the First Battle of the Marne.

In April 1935, the tower was used to make experimental low-resolution television transmissions.

A statue of Gustave Eiffel by Antoine Bourdelle was unveiled at the base of the north leg in 1929.

In 1930, the tower lost the title of the world's tallest structure when the Chrysler Building in New York City was completed.  But the Eiffel tower became taller again when they added an antenna to it.

When the Germans were occupying Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French. And they weren’t repaired until 1946.

In 1940, German soldiers had to climb the tower to hoist a swastika flag, but the flag was so large it blew away just a few hours later, and was replaced by a smaller one.

When visiting Paris, Hitler was too lazy to walk up to the top of the Eiffel tower, so he stayed on the ground.
When the Allies were nearing Paris in August 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order (luckily for Paris).

On 25th of June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13th of June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans.
A fire started in the television transmitter on 3rd of January 1956, damaging the top of the tower. Repairs took a year, and in 1957, the present radio aerial was added to the top.

According to interviews, in 1967, Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau negotiated a secret agreement with Charles de Gaulle for the tower to be dismantled and temporarily relocated to Montreal to serve as a landmark and tourist attraction during Expo 67. The plan was allegedly vetoed by the company operating the tower out of fear that the French government could refuse permission for the tower to be restored in its original location.


When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants, French, Russian, Flemish, and an American Bar. After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250 seat theatre.

At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests.
In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament in Paris in June. The apartment has a kitchen, two bedrooms, a lounge, and views of Paris landmarks including the Seine, the Sacre Coeur, and the Arc de Triomphe.

Structural quirks

Depending on the temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm due to thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun.

The Eiffel Tower sways by up to 9 centimetres in the wind.

When it was built, many were shocked by the tower's daring form. Eiffel was accused of trying to create something artistic with no regard to the principles of engineering.
 However, Eiffel and his team, were experienced builders and knew what they were doing.
In an interview with the newspaper Le Temps published on 14 February 1887, Eiffel said:
“Is it not true that the very conditions which give strength also conform to the hidden rules of harmony? … Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? It was wind resistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as mathematical calculation dictated it should be … will give a great impression of strength and beauty, for it will reveal to the eyes of the observer the boldness of the design as a whole.”

When it was put together every thing had to be precise to 0.1 of a millimeter, and if a piece was wrong it had to be shipped back to the factory.